Biosecurity quiz answers

04 August 2022

How did you go? Are you a quiz master? See the answers to the biosecurity quiz below.

  1. Name the two unwanted pests pictured above.
    Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) on the left, and Yellow Spotted Stink Bug (YSSB) on the right.

  2. Name the government department responsible for biosecurity.
    Biosecurity New Zealand, which is part of the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI).

  3. The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) and Queensland Fruit Fly (QFF) are two of the biggest threats to New Zealand’s horticultural industries. However, the type of impact on horticulture is significantly different for both pests. Name the two different ways in which these pests impact horticulture.
    BMSB is a production pest that would damage crops, reducing yield and the value of marketable fruit. The QFF is a market access pest and would greatly hinder where fruit could be exported too.

  4. Not all plant pathogens can be spread in the wind like Psa. What is another way that pathogens can spread between orchards?
    - Soil on machinery/vehicles
    - Contaminated tools
    - People and their contaminated footwear/clothing
    - Plant pathways, including budwood/plants/mature plants/compost

  5. A new-to-New Zealand biosecurity threat was detected in a Spongy Moth (previously known as Asian Gypsy Moth) trap in Tauranga earlier this year. What was the organism?
    Fall Armyworm.

  6. There are a number of ways in which you can report something unusual on your orchard. Name two of these.
    - The MPI hotline on 0800 80 99 66
    - The MPI online form
    - The Find-A-Pest app
    - Industry bodies such as KVH

  7. The implications of our changing climate are far reaching. Name two impacts climate change could have on biosecurity risk.
    - The change in pest distribution, both regionally and internationally
    - Extreme weather events would enable spread of pathogens (e.g., blown over from Australia) or stresses in plants could allow pathogens to take hold
    - Change in plant resilience through increased stresses (whether it be gradual environmental changes or extreme events)
    - Change in where plants can be grown, which may expose them to new threats

  8. The New Zealand biosecurity system is not a single layer of defence, but is made up of many different layers. It is often described as a ‘swiss cheese model’ (see an image of the model here). Explain what is meant by this.
    Multiple layers of protection, imagined as cheese slices, block the spread of the new pest or disease.

  9. No one layer is perfect; each has holes, and they are in different places, catching some risk in some areas. When the holes align, or when there are too few slices, the risk of biosecurity threats slipping through increases.

  10. With several layers combined - importation requirements, border inspections, surveillance, on-orchard biosecurity practices for example – we significantly reduce the overall risk.

  11. Name two national pest management plans currently in place in New Zealand.
    There are currently several national pest management plans in place in New Zealand. Aside from the kiwifruit industry’s Psa plan, there is one for TB, and also one for varroa mite. National plans for kauri dieback and Mycoplasma bovis have also been confirmed.

    The kiwifruit industry’s new Pathway Management Plan is an answer that will get you a point, however, it is a different type of management plan in that instead of focusing on a single pest (like Psa) it protects us against the full range of biosecurity threats to our industry and focuses more on the pathway risks themselves – things like plants, budwood, pollen, orchard equipment and other items moved by people.

  12. Growers are responsible for protecting their orchards, and others, by ensuring the movement risk of harvest equipment, people, and bins onto and around their orchard is minimised. Name four measures you can put in place to increase harvest hygiene and reduce the risk of spreading biosecurity threats.
    - Make sure contractors and staff understand your hygiene requirements
    - Check all equipment (harvest bins, harvest machinery, picking bags etc) coming on to your orchard is free of plant and soil material
    - Ensure any harvest bins arriving on the orchard have been sanitised by the pack-house between orchards and are clear of any kiwifruit plant material and soil
    - Ensure people check that clothing (particularly headwear and footwear) is free of plant material and soil on entry and exit
    - Do not allow workers to bring imported fruit onto the orchard
    - Clear loadout areas of weeds before harvest
    - Clearly mark parking and hygiene control areas
    - Allow only essential vehicles into the production area
    - Limit access to only established roads and tracks

  13. Biosecurity has topped KPMG’s annual Agribusiness Agenda priorities survey for 12 years running. Despite this, we can see biosecurity complacency settle in as biosecurity is an issue that often sits out of sight and out of mind for many. Name two ways in which you can combat biosecurity complacency on your orchard/ in your workplace.
    There are lots of ways you could do this, mainly involving things like staff training and setting clear expectations for staff around biosecurity; building expectations into contracts and agreements; including biosecurity and updates in staff meetings; offering biosecurity training; encouraging senior management and Board members to include biosecurity in their risk management; and taking part in industry or community biosecurity field days and events for example.

  14. Growers should check and be comfortable that inputs crossing their orchard boundary do not present a risk to their investment. Imagine you are a grower, and you have the following inputs coming onto your orchard. What questions do you need to ask, and what measures would you expect before allowing entry and movement through your orchard? See if you can think of two questions or measures per input below.

    Nursery plants:
    Are they certified? Plant Pass and the Kiwifruit Plant Certification Scheme (KPCS) are examples of certification programmes.
    - What is the health of the plants when they arrive on the orchard?
    - Do the dispatch notes/docket match the plants received?
    - Are there good traceability records?
    - What’s the plan for monitoring for unusual symptoms?

    - Where have they come from? Are they high-risk?
    - Is their vehicle and any machinery or tools they have with them clean? How were they cleaned?
    - Do they hold a contractor CAV and have a biosecurity plan?
    - Are there designated parking areas?
    - Is there a wash down area?
    - Do they know to be on the lookout for anything unusual and know how to report anything they find?

    Tools and equipment (i.e. pruning shears, secateurs):
    - Where else have these items been used, and have they been correctly sanitised?
    - Are they taking unnecessary risks creating wounds in wet weather?
    - Are items correctly used, stored, and cleaned on your orchard? Or even better, are they dedicated to your orchard?

    - Where have they come from? Are they high-risk because of any recent travel outside of New Zealand or to an area of the country with increased risk?
    - Why are they visiting, and have they signed in and left a record?
    - Has footwear been cleaned and sanitised?
    - Did they use the designated parking area?
    - Do they know to be on the lookout for anything unusual and know how to report anything they find?