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Orchard management

Orchard management

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Managing infected material

Infected material poses ongoing risk of further spread as bacterial populations can rise quickly if left unmanaged. This can result in disease spread within and between orchards.


Experience has shown rapid, aggressive cutting is the best way to avoid the spread of Psa to other parts of the orchard.

Symptoms like shoot dieback, cane dieback, cankers and red/orange and white exudate, indicate Psa has moved into the vine's vascular system. If left untreated, these secondary symptoms will continue to progress and in highly-susceptible vines may lead to plant death. Additionally, leaving infected vines untreated increases the risk of infection spread to the rest of the orchard.

For orchards with Psa strains identified as resistant and/or tolerant to Psa protectant sprays, infection removal is particularly important to reduce the risk of spread of these new strains to other orchards.

Where symptoms are severe or repeated infection is occurring, consideration should be given to removing individual vines and/or susceptible varieties.

KVH encourages growers to remove and dispose of infected plant material as quickly as possible.


All kiwifruit plant material needs to be disposed of on-site and must not be transported from the property unless KVH has given approval. Contact KVH by email or phone 0800 665 825.

How to destroy kiwifruit stumps in an orchard

Removing the entire stump, for example with a bobcat, is the most effective way of preventing future regrowth. All woody roots must be removed. Stumps should be mulched or stacked in a suitable location (e.g. into a pit) and burnt. If burning, ensure all rural fire and district council requirements are met. Never dump stumps into a gully or forest area as they may regrow, resulting in further wild kiwifruit infestations.

Alternatively, glyphosate herbicide can be applied to the top and sides of a cut stump. A suitable herbicide mixture for use in an orchard is glyphosate mixed 1 to 1 with Kiwi Cover surfactant. This mixture should be applied to the top and sides of the freshly cut stump. A suitable applicator is a knapsack or 10 litre sprayer. The mixture must be applied under low pressure with no drift beyond the stump. Repeat applications may be necessary.


KVH investigates reports of unusual symptoms to identify and manage any biosecurity risks.

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23 May 2024

Fun Fact

We’ve got brand new pest ID cards printing and coming your way shortly. The flashcards have been created to help everyone involved in orchard work improve their pest and disease ID skills – they provide an easy way to identify some of the kiwifruit industry’s biggest biosecurity risks and are a practical tool for out in the field. They’re plastic coated and durable, and held together with a ring you can adjust over time as we produce new cards and update our Most Unwanted list We’ll have these with us at upcoming events and as soon as they’re hot off the press we’ll let you know so you can order some for you and your teams.

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23 May 2024

Smart sanitising

With harvest almost done and thoughts turning to pruning and grafting, now is a perfect time to talk sanitisers. Hygiene practices including cleaning tools on arrival, and regularly between blocks, bays, and vines are a known cornerstone to protecting vines from entry of high-risk organisms, and an important discussion between growers and contractors as they agree biosecurity processes for the season. A list of sanitisers effective against biosecurity risk organisms can be found on the KVH website. This research-based information compares performance of sanitisers on wood, plastic, tyre, and metal surfaces and so allows growers to choose the most suitable product for their use. Some good news also as the plastic holsters fabricated by a Katikati firm to provide a simple and effective solution to ensure tools are regularly sanitised are still available, with orders being taken now. Sanitiser solution is added to the holsters and topped up as required avoiding the need for staff to carry separate buckets or bottles up and down rows, creating a win-win for staff and orchard owners. To find out more about availability and prices email Frank at Hercules Tanks.

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23 May 2024

Biosecurity learnings from Australia

Earlier this month, KVH visited Cairns to attend the Plant Biosecurity Research Initiative (PBRI) Symposium. This two-day event is held every two years to highlight research outcomes from PBRI’s $69M investment in plant biosecurity. The event also provides KVH with an excellent opportunity to stay engaged with our Australian counterparts in research, industry, and government. Northern Queensland is a focal point for biosecurity in the banana industry, which is under threat from a soil borne pathogen, known as Panama disease Tropical Race 4 (TR4). KVH visited some banana farms (as they are referred to) and was kindly hosted by Howe Farms to see what lessons we could incorporate into our own biosecurity preparedness for kiwifruit threats. TR4 has been sweeping through banana production regions around the world and was first detected in Australia in 1997 where it decimated the local banana industry. In 2015, TR4 was detected in Northern Queensland where 95% of Australia’s bananas are grown. The initial response was a scorched earth policy where the infected property was purchased by the industry and all host material (banana plants) removed and the earth left bare to prevent further transmission. While this approach may have slowed the spread, it has not eradicated the disease which is now known to be present on five properties in Northern Queensland. While the pathogen is not considered eradicable, the coordinated approach between Federal and State Governments, alongside industry has been effective in slowing the spread compared to all other regions where this pathogen has been detected. As a soil borne pathogen, on-orchard practices are focused at preventing the movement of soil and plant material between properties. Visiting banana farms provided KVH with an excellent learning opportunity to observe the practices used to combat a threat that is spread this way. Where applicable, KVH will look to incorporate these learnings into our readiness plans for other soil borne pathogens such as Ceratocystis fimbriata, which is considered our number one pathogen threat and has caused significant impact to kiwifruit growers in Brazil, as well as a wide range of other hosts around the world. Image: Managing biosecurity risk includes shipping containers with mandatory footwear changes and footbaths with separate entrances and exits (left); Matt Dyck from KVH visiting a banana grower, along with Brad Siebert from New Zealand Avocado.

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