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Psa-V Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is a bacteria that can result in the death of kiwifruit vines. It was first discovered in New Zealand in November 2010 and rapidly caused widespread and severe impacts to New Zealand's kiwifruit industry.

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Psa-V is a bacterial disease of kiwifruit vines and a major threat to the New Zealand kiwifruit industry. It carries no risks to human or animal health and does not affect plants other than kiwifruit vines.

First detected on a Te Puke orchard in November 2010, Psa has since been identified in numerous kiwifruit growing regions across New Zealand. Growth of Psa bacteria outside/inside kiwifruit vines can result in leaf spotting, cane/leader dieback and, in extreme cases, vine death accompanied by the production of exudates.

Since it's initial detection a significant amount of funding and resource has gone into an ongoing Psa-V research and development programme to better understand and manage the disease.

Based on the programme's results (combined with on-orchard experience) best practice advice and resources are developed and used by the industry, working collectively at an orchard, regional and national level to reduce Psa spread and impacts, and ensure day-to-day management of the pathogen. This information is produced and co-ordinated by Zespri, and is available online here.

As the kiwifruit industry's dedicated biosecurity agency, KVH leads all high-risk management of Psa and preparedness for any new variants. As such, Psa remains a specified organism in the Pathway Management Plan, which ensures we continue to have the ability to manage the spread of Psa within New Zealand and respond to new forms of Psa should they be found.

access psa support and resources

  • Visit the Zespri Canopy here for current Psa information and resources related to on-orchard management and best practice advice
  • Contact Zespri directly at 0800 155 355 (or 07 572 7600), or email [email protected]
  • Contact your local KVH Regional Coordinator
  • Speak with your local post-harvest grower liaison, technical expert, or merchant (e.g. Farmlands, PGG Wrightsons)

Access the Zespri Weather & Disease Portal

The Zesori Weather & Disease Portal is an online, weather-based decision support tool to assist growers with orchard management in a Psa environment. Weather station data and weather forecast information is combined to provide customised access to unique weather information, disease information and interpretations. Log in here to access the portal.

Note: From 1 April 2023 the kiwifruit industry moved into a new phase of Psa protection and longer-term management, including movement of the Weather & Disease portal from KVH to Zespri. Over time, logging in will be via the Zespri Canopy directly and we will keep you informed of plans for this change.

report suspected Psa

Any person who identifies potential symptoms of Psa on an orchard for the first time, or new spread of the disease, must report these to KVH within 48 hours of identification. To make a report email KVH or phone 0800 665 825. You can also contact your local KVH Regional Coordinator.


KVH investigates reports of unusual symptoms to identify and manage any biosecurity risks.

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23 May 2024

Fun Fact

We’ve got brand new pest ID cards printing and coming your way shortly. The flashcards have been created to help everyone involved in orchard work improve their pest and disease ID skills – they provide an easy way to identify some of the kiwifruit industry’s biggest biosecurity risks and are a practical tool for out in the field. They’re plastic coated and durable, and held together with a ring you can adjust over time as we produce new cards and update our Most Unwanted list We’ll have these with us at upcoming events and as soon as they’re hot off the press we’ll let you know so you can order some for you and your teams.

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23 May 2024

Smart sanitising

With harvest almost done and thoughts turning to pruning and grafting, now is a perfect time to talk sanitisers. Hygiene practices including cleaning tools on arrival, and regularly between blocks, bays, and vines are a known cornerstone to protecting vines from entry of high-risk organisms, and an important discussion between growers and contractors as they agree biosecurity processes for the season. A list of sanitisers effective against biosecurity risk organisms can be found on the KVH website. This research-based information compares performance of sanitisers on wood, plastic, tyre, and metal surfaces and so allows growers to choose the most suitable product for their use. Some good news also as the plastic holsters fabricated by a Katikati firm to provide a simple and effective solution to ensure tools are regularly sanitised are still available, with orders being taken now. Sanitiser solution is added to the holsters and topped up as required avoiding the need for staff to carry separate buckets or bottles up and down rows, creating a win-win for staff and orchard owners. To find out more about availability and prices email Frank at Hercules Tanks.

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23 May 2024

Biosecurity learnings from Australia

Earlier this month, KVH visited Cairns to attend the Plant Biosecurity Research Initiative (PBRI) Symposium. This two-day event is held every two years to highlight research outcomes from PBRI’s $69M investment in plant biosecurity. The event also provides KVH with an excellent opportunity to stay engaged with our Australian counterparts in research, industry, and government. Northern Queensland is a focal point for biosecurity in the banana industry, which is under threat from a soil borne pathogen, known as Panama disease Tropical Race 4 (TR4). KVH visited some banana farms (as they are referred to) and was kindly hosted by Howe Farms to see what lessons we could incorporate into our own biosecurity preparedness for kiwifruit threats. TR4 has been sweeping through banana production regions around the world and was first detected in Australia in 1997 where it decimated the local banana industry. In 2015, TR4 was detected in Northern Queensland where 95% of Australia’s bananas are grown. The initial response was a scorched earth policy where the infected property was purchased by the industry and all host material (banana plants) removed and the earth left bare to prevent further transmission. While this approach may have slowed the spread, it has not eradicated the disease which is now known to be present on five properties in Northern Queensland. While the pathogen is not considered eradicable, the coordinated approach between Federal and State Governments, alongside industry has been effective in slowing the spread compared to all other regions where this pathogen has been detected. As a soil borne pathogen, on-orchard practices are focused at preventing the movement of soil and plant material between properties. Visiting banana farms provided KVH with an excellent learning opportunity to observe the practices used to combat a threat that is spread this way. Where applicable, KVH will look to incorporate these learnings into our readiness plans for other soil borne pathogens such as Ceratocystis fimbriata, which is considered our number one pathogen threat and has caused significant impact to kiwifruit growers in Brazil, as well as a wide range of other hosts around the world. Image: Managing biosecurity risk includes shipping containers with mandatory footwear changes and footbaths with separate entrances and exits (left); Matt Dyck from KVH visiting a banana grower, along with Brad Siebert from New Zealand Avocado.

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